Hereditary Diseases and their PreventionsDefinition:Hereditary Diseases are the inherited abnormal congenital diseases/ defects caused by gene defects from the parents, fore fathers, grandfathers, grandmothers etc. Over 2300 hereditary diseases have been diagnosed/ identified.Genes and their Functions:Genes are units which are composed of DNAs, RNAs and chromosomes etc. These are the units of heredity which determine a particular character of an individual and transmit hereditary information from generation to generation with hereditary character and the variation of inherited character. They contain the hereditary information’s encoded in their chemical structure for transmission from generation to generation. The question of intelligence, low structure, high structure, low frame and big frame body, colour of blue eyes, black eyes, brown skin, fair skin, black skin, grey hair, white hair, brown hair, red-green colour blindness (due to human x-chromosome) etc are based on different genes and blood grouping ABO and Rh is based on Gene O, Gene A and Gene B. There are 14 Blood groups discovered till date.Intelligence Quotient (IQ) and Grades:
The degree of intelligence and grades is assessed for the mental ability, capacity for the same age by the score of IQ and grades. There are 9 IQ levels starting from Idiot- 0-24%, Imbecile- 25-49%, Moron- 50-69%, Boderline- 70-79%, Low Normal- 80-89%, Normal-90-109%, Superior-110-119%, Very Superior-120-139%, Near Genius-140% and above. IQ can be improved with special education and favorable environmental factors.The grading under Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU), the grades are as follows: A is excellent with 80% and above, B is Very Good with 60-79.9%, C is Good with 50-59.9%, D is satisfactory with 40-49.9% and E is unsatisfactory with below 40%. JNU Delhi, many Universities and education institutions of various disciplines/ branches, departments, etc use grading systems for the…

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